In principle, test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once. In equivalencepartitioning technique we need to test only one condition from each partition. As seen from the diagrams above there are problems when moving from weak equivalence class testing to strong. A comparative analysis on equivalence class partitioning.
Taking this into consideration istqb is having significant importance for this topic in the istqb foundation level certificate exam. In this technique, only one condition to be tested from each partition. Intelligent sampling using equivalence partitioning. Equivalence partitioning ep is a specificationbased or blackbox technique. Equivalence partitioning seems to say that theres no point testing month 3 if ive already tested month 4.
The equivalence partitions are frequently derived from the requirements specification for input data that influence the processing of the test object. The synonyms for the word are equal, same, identical etc. Test cases are designed for equivalence data class. Equivalence class partitioning and boundary value analysis as black box test design heuristics next generation in agile software test automation. Equivalence class testing equivalence partitioning. Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning ecp is a software testing technique that divides the input data of a software unit into partitions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. Complexity of equivalence class and boundary value testing. Test case design with the help of equivalence partitioning technique has two steps. This paper proposes a novel input partitioning method based on the information extracted from the program source code to aid in the equivalence class testing. Do we need both equivalence partitioning and boundary. In boundary testing, equivalence class partitioning plays a good. Equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis mcqs. Decision coverage are both normally measured using a software tool.
Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning ecp is a software testing technique that divides the input data of a software unit into partitions of. You could find other testing techniques such as equivalence partitioning, decision table and state transition techniques by clicking on appropriate links boundary value analysis bva is based on testing the boundary values of valid and invalid partitions. We can summarize equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis as black box or specification based testing techniques. Requirementsbased test generation for functional testing. What is boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning. Equivalence class testing, which is also known as equivalence class partitioning ecp and equivalence partitioning, is an important software. Boundary value analysis is a technique to test boundary value between valid and invalid partitions in test case design. Equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis mcqs 1. System testing, boundary value analysis, equivalence class partitioning. Test cases for input box accepting numbers between 1 and using equivalence partitioning. Equivalence partitioning test case design technique. In our earlier example instead of checking, one value for each partition you will check the values at the partitions like 0, 1, 10, 11 and so on. Its important that all testers should be able to write test cases based on equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis.
A pairwise test design can be used to verify the equivalence classes. Boundary value analysis and equivalence class partitioning. The idea is to divide the input data into equivalent similar classes and have a test case covering each partition at least one time. Partitioning is done such that the program behaves in a similar way to every input value belonging to an equivalence. Hence selecting one input from each group to design the test cases. So in the above example, we can divide our test cases into three equivalence classes of some valid and invalid inputs. Among the many ways of testing, we choose the software testing using boundary value analysis techniques. Equivalence partitioning ep is a method for testing software programs. In this given example, there are 2 main points where the state changes. This technique is used to reduce the amount of test cases.
In boundary testing, equivalence class partitioning plays a good role boundary testing comes after the equivalence class partitioning. Each class is called as equivalence partition because all the elements in an equivalence class test the. Triangle problem weak robust equivalence class test cases test case a b c expected output wr1 1 5 5 value of a is not in the range of permitted values wr2 5. Equivalence class partitioning and boundary value analysis.
From each partition of data, one test case is needed. It would seem dangerous to use this principle for black box testing, less so for greygray box testing. It divides the input domain of a program into classes. Equivalence partitioning software requirements requirements speci. The word equivalence means the condition of being equal or equivalent in value, worth, function, etc. Equivalent class partitioning is a black box technique code is not visible to tester which can be applied to all levels of testing like unit, integration, system, etc. Equivalence partitioning equivalence class partitioning ecp it can be used at any level of software for testing and is preferably a good technique to use first. A shopping website gives discount based on prices of total purchased items. Eric wong, the university of texas at dallas 17 example ii 4 18 in some cases the equivalence classes are based on the output generated by the program.
Boundary value analysis is a refinement of the equivalence class partitioning method which again is one of. Black box testing is where test cases are written to test the inputs and verify the output of the software system without the knowledge about the internal working of the software. Definition of equivalence partitioning equivalence partitioning is a blackbox testing technique basic test design technique that splits the input domain into classes of data. It can be applied at any level of testing and is often a good technique to use first. Equivalence class partitioning software testing class. Requirementsbased test generation for functional testing 2012 professor w. Here are few sample questions for practice from istqb exam papers on equivalence partitioning and bva. Posted in testing objective, web application objective tagged boundary analysis and equivalent partitioning objective question answers, boundary value analysis multiple choice questions and answers, difference between equivalence and boundary value in software testing, difference between equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, equivalence class testing vs. Equivalence partitioning is a black box technique to identify test cases systematically and is often the first technique to be applied when designing test cases. The input domain can be anything which may influence the outcome of the test e. It is a software testing technique that divides the input test data of the application under test into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. Blackbox technique that focuses on the boundaries of the input domain rather than its center whenever the engineers need to develop test cases for a range kind of input then they will go for boundary value analysis. In this technique, the data fed into the software to be tested is divided into partitions of equal sizes. Frankly saing, during my career as software testing engineer i havent met a lot of mentions about input domain partitions.
In this article we will discuss some basic test design techniques used to create better test cases, particularly boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning and how these. Equivalence class testing is a powerful method of testing since it cuts down the number of test cases required to test a system reasonably with regards to boundaryvalue testing. Equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, comparison testing, sample testing, robustness tesing, and others. Boundary value analysis test case design technique is one of the testing techniques. Simple to little complex question 1 one of the fields on a form contains a text box which accepts numeric values in the range of 18 to 25. Equivalence class partitioning and boundary value analysis black box testing techniques by testnbug in manual testing basics january 7, 2015 1 comment in this tutorial, we will discuss the approach to design the test cases and also how to apply the boundary value and equivalence class techniques.
Equivalence class partitioning example problem in software. This is because we are assuming that all the conditions in one partition will be treated in the same way by the software. Boundary value analysis is a blackbox testing technique, closely associated with equivalence class partitioning. Boundary value analysis multiple choice questions and.
The different test cases must test the classes of the software continuously. Equivalence partitioning in software testing test design. Boundary value analysis and equivalence class partitioning with. Equivalence partitioning also called as equivalence class partitioning. But nevertheless this term exists and lets try to take a look is there a difference between equivalence class testing and input domain partitioning. Each test case is representative of a respective class. Boundary value analysis and equivalence class partitioning both are test case design techniques in black box testing. Equivalence class partitioning simplified software testing. Equivalence partitioning is also known as equivalence class partitioning. For example, suppose that a program outputs an integer. Istqb exam questions on equivalence partitioning and. Equivalence partitioning is a method for deriving test cases.
Equivalence class partitioning is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data give example for high severity and. Lets see what has to say about boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning first. Thus the result of testing a single value from an equivalence partition is considered. A codebased input partitioning method for equivalence. As you may observe, you test values at both valid and invalid boundaries. Using the equivalence partitioning method above test cases can be divided into three sets of input data called classes. Black box testing provide us with some techniques to run the test, such as.
Here,t he input values to a program are partitioned into equivalence classes. Total test time for the 1st cycle, defect identification, reporting and re testing, plus regression testing 1,996. What is equivalence partitioning in software testing. It divides the input data of software into different equivalence data classes. Both boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning are black box testing design techniques. Keywords software testing, unit testing, integration testing. In this technique, you divide the set of test condition into a partition that can be considered the same.
Divide all possible inputs into classes partitions such that there is a finite number of input equivalence classes you may reasonably assume that the program behaves analogously for inputs in the same class a test with a representative value from a class is sufficient if representative detects fault then other class. In this method, classes of input conditions called equivalence classes are identified such that each member of the class causes the same kind of processing and output to occur. An advantage of this approach is it reduces the time. What is difference between equivalence class testing and. The relation between stimulus function and equivalence class formation that three s1 and three s2 stimuli were used as sample and comparison stimuli.
Boundary value analysis in boundary value analysis, you test boundaries between equivalence partitions. Software testing verifies that programs work as expected. In this technique, we analyze the behavior of the application with test data residing at the boundary values of the equivalence classes. Good practice and logical thinking can make it very easy to solve these questions. Equivalence partitioning is a test case design technique to divide the input data of software into different equivalence data classes. In equivalence partitioning, inputs to the software or system are divided into groups that are expected to exhibit similar behavior, so they are likely to be proposed in the same way. Equivalence partitions are also known as equivalence classes the two terms mean exactly the same thing.121 1508 26 1041 312 1331 923 336 860 1066 1001 951 377 1227 1138 1224 1017 196 843 618 168 1483 109 117 1433 1175 211 696 82 924 1422 440 218 383 554